Skip to content Skip to footer

RAPORT avamere tuuleparkide ja muude taastuvenergiasüsteemide mõju kohta kalandussektorile

https://www.europarl.europa.eu/doceo/document/A-9-2021-0184_ET.html

10. rõhutab, et algusest peale tuleb arvestada merealade mitmeotstarbelise kasutamisega nii, et avamere tuuleparkide esindajate huvid, kalandussektori vajadused ning ELi energia-, kliima- ja bioloogilise mitmekesisuse eesmärkide täitmine oleksid omavahel tasakaalus; rõhutab, et hästi läbimõeldud projekteerimise ja ehitamise korral võivad avamere tuulepargid tuua kasu mere bioloogilisele mitmekesisusele ja leida kasutust refuugiumitena; kutsub komisjoni ja liikmesriike üles hindama juba tegutsevate avamere tuuleparkide mõju mereelupaikade taastumisele ja bioloogilisele mitmekesisusele ning looma ELi parimaid tavasid;

11. rõhutab, et mere kasutamine energia tootmiseks nii, et samaaegselt oleksid tagatud keskkonnakaitse nõuded ning kalanduse ja muu majandustegevuse kestlik areng, eeldab ühist planeerimist ja merekasutuse kumulatiivse mõju, sealhulgas sotsiaal-majandusliku ja sotsiaal-kultuurilise mõju põhjalikku hindamist; usub, et avamere keskkonnas ja majanduses tegutsevate sektorite vaheline koostöö on ka õiglase ülemineku tõukejõud; kutsub pädevaid ametiasutusi üles hindama algatusi, mis ergutavad kohalikku majandust ja majandustegevust avamerel, ning leidma majandussektorite vahel koostoimeid, mis võivad olla tulevikukindla majanduse elavdamise aluseks;

12. rõhutab, et avamerepiirkondade mitmeotstarbelise kasutamise pikaajalisi võimalusi tuleb uurida varasemas etapis, et võimaldada avamere tuuleparkide laiendamist ja samal ajal leevendada nende otsest ja kaudset mõju kalandusele; rõhutab, et ELi õigusraamistik peaks aitama tagada keskkonnamõjude seiret ning meetmete võtmist nende mõjude ennetamiseks ja minimeerimiseks; rõhutab veel, et ELi avamere tuuleenergia strateegia väljatöötamisel peaksid kliima-, energia-, kalandus- ja mere bioloogilist mitmekesisust käsitlev- poliitika üksteist vastastikku tugevdama;

13. rõhutab, et vajaduse korral peaks ruumi eraldamine põhinema ühisel mereala ruumilisel planeerimisel, milles osalevad komisjon, liikmesriigid ja naaberriigid, et optimeerida mereruumi kasutamist, valdkondade- ja riikidevahelist koostööd ning vastastikust austust ja heanaaberlikke suhteid arvesse võttes vähendada võimalikke ruumialaseid konflikte; rõhutab, et direktiivis 2014/89/EL sätestatud mereruumi plaanid tuleb kehtestada võimalikult kiiresti ja hiljemalt 31. märtsiks 2021;

14. palub komisjonil viia läbi mõjuhinnang, et uurida uute avamere tuuleparkide ehitamise eeldatavat majanduslikku, sotsiaalset, keskkonna- ja kliimamõju, samuti mõju elurikkusele piirkondades, kus on tõenäoline vastuollu sattumine kalandussektoriga.

ENG COMMENT

“Fishermen and aquaculture producers should have a real say in the process of where those windmills are being built,” said Peter van Dalen

In his report, van Dalen says new offshore wind turbines should only be built after a comprehensive impact assessment has been made on the environment, socio-economic and socio-cultural implications.

The report points to underwater noise caused by the construction of offshore wind turbines which “has been shown to have an effect, mainly on fish and marine mammals and mainly during the construction phase.” It also draws attention to the “impacts from permanent continuous electromagnetic fields” which risk impacting the behaviour of electro-sensitive species.

Highlights that a strong expansion of offshore wind energy production requires an intelligent approach to ensure its coexistence with the activities that already take place in the affected areas; stresses that there are already examples of coexistence between the fishing sector and the offshore wind energy sector, and that this experience should be used to find and share the best available practices for the multiple uses of the relevant resources during the entire life cycle of marine infrastructure; highlights that collaboration is critical to the safe coexistence of fishing and wind farm operations – the wind industry, fishermen and local authorities should cooperate in the exchange of data with the fishing industry.

Stresses that the multiple use of sea areas must be considered from the outset in a way that strikes a balance between the interests of the offshore wind sector, the fishing sector and the fulfilment of EU energy, climate and biodiversity objectives; emphasises that if designed and built sensibly, offshore windfarms could benefit marine biodiversity and serve as refugia; calls on the Commission and the Member States to assess the impact of the offshore wind farms which are already in operation on the regeneration of marine habitats and on biodiversity, and to establish an EU best practice;

Stresses that the use of the sea for energy production, while ensuring environmental protection and the sustainable development of fisheries and other economic activities, requires joint planning and an assessment of its cumulative impacts, including socio-economic and socio-cultural effects; believes that cooperation across the sectors active in the offshore environment and economy will also be a driver for a just transition; calls on the competent authorities to assess initiatives that stimulate local economies and economic activities offshore and to find synergies between sectors that can be the bedrock of a future-proof economic recovery;

Stresses that long-term options for multiple uses of offshore areas must be explored at an earlier stage in order to enable the expansion of offshore wind farms while addressing their direct and indirect impact on fisheries; stresses that the EU regulatory framework should contribute to ensuring that environmental impacts are monitored and actions taken to prevent and minimise these impacts; stresses further that climate, energy, fisheries and marine biodiversity policies should reinforce each other when developing an EU offshore wind strategy;

Stresses that space allocation, where relevant, should be the result of joint maritime spatial planning (MSP) that involves the Commission, the Member States and neighbouring countries with a view to optimising the use of sea space and cross-sector and cross-country cooperation, and minimising spatial conflicts, while taking into account mutual respect and good neighbourly relations; stresses that the maritime spatial plans, as set out in Directive 2014/89/EU shall be established as soon as possible, and at the latest by 31 March 2021;